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Abstract........................................................................................................................3

Introducere….....….…………………...................................………..….…………...5

CAP.I PRINCIPIILE FIZICE ΞN REZONANTA MAGNETIC? NUCLEAR?…….....….7

1.1 Pulsul de fregventa radio(RF).........................………….......................................12

1.2 Magnetizarea longitudinala si transversala…….................……...........................15

1.3 Timpul de repetitie (TR)………………...................................………….......…..19

1.4 Timpul de ecou (TE)……………………………...................................………...21

1.5 Timpul de obtinere a imaginii……….............................…..................................27

1.6 O privire asupra aparaturii………...................…...…...................................…....28

CAP.II SUBSTANTE DE CONTRAST.…………...………..........................................31

2.1Agenti de contrast paramagneticicu distributie introvasculara extracelular...........31

2.2 Agenti de contrast hepatobiliari.............................................................................32

2.3 Agentii reticulo-endoteliali………...................................…….…………………33

2.4 Agenti de contrast ai fluidelor extracelulare.........................................................33

2.5 Agentii specifici tumorali.......................................................................................33

2.6 Agentii de contrast gastrointestinali.......................................................................34

Cap.III ARTEFACTELE ΞN REZONANTA MAGNETIC? NUCLEAR?……...............35

3.1 Artefactele campului de radiofrecventa.................................................................35

3.2 Artefactele de miscare............................................................................................36

3.3 Artefactele in directia de codare a frecventei…….....…...................................….37

3.4 Artefactele in directiile de codare a fazei si frecventei..........................................37

3.5 Artefactele independente de directia de codare......................................................37

CAPITOLUL IV . PARTEA SPECIAL?........................................................................39

4.1 SECVENTE DE PULS..............................................................................................39

4.1.1 Secventa spin ecou (SE)......................................................................................39

4.1.2 Secventa FSE ( Fast Spin Echo ).........................................................................40

4.1.3 Secventa SSFSE (single shot FSE)….................................................................41

4.1.4 Secventa IR (inversion recovery)………………….………………………...…41

4.1.5 Secventele FSE-IR, FLAIR (fluid attenuated inversion recovery) si STIR (Short TI inversion recovery)………………………………………………………………..43

4.1.6 Secventele de puls GRE (coherent gradient echo) si SPGR(spoiled gradient echo)……………………………………………………………………………….....44

4.1.7 Secventa EPI (echo planar imaging)………………………………………...…46

4.1.8 Secventele DWI (diffusion weighted imaging)………………………...………47

4.1.9 Secventele MRA (magnetic resonance angiography)………………………….47

4.1.10 Imagini dinamice (dynamic imaging)………………………………….……..49

4.1.11 Imagini functionale ( functional imaging - fMRI )……………………….…..50

4.2 PUNEREA ΞN PRACTIC? A SECVENTELOR DE PULS.........................................52

Concluzii……….............................................................................................................59

Bibliografie.....................................................................................................................60

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